Production and evaluation of extruded snacks from Sourghum (Sorghumbicolor l. Moench), soybean (Glycinemax (l.) Merr.) and carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus)
Uchenna E Umeohia, Gregory I Okafor
The nutritional qualities of extruded sorghum-soy snack fortified with carrot pulp were evaluated. Snacks were prepared by hot extrusion of sorghum-soybean-carrot blends (wheat (0.8kg), sorghum (0.16kg), soybean (0.04kg) and carrot pulp (0.1kg)) in a single screw extruder operated at standard processing conditions (barrel temperature, 150oC). The samples were subjected to chemical, microbial, anti-nutritional and sensory analysis using standard methods. Results of chemical analysis showed that the incorporation of soy flour into the blends increased the nutrient content of the extrudates while fortification with carrot pulp increased the pro-vitamin A content to 116% of Required Dietary Allowance (RDI) (3478 International Units). Carrot fortification also increased the acceptability of the snacks by imparting desirable colour, taste and flavour to the product. The vitamin C, B1, B2, B3, and iron contents were markedly retained after extrusion. The extrusion processing was effective in eliminating tannin, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor and haemagglutinin activities and reduced phytate content of the final extrudate to a safe level. The preferred snack (sorghum-soy-carrot extruded snack) had a low fat content, high carbohydrate, ash, fibre and protein contents. The enhanced nutrients of the extrudate suggest that acceptable extruded snacks could be produced from blends of soy, sorghum and carrot.