Low serum 25(OH) D concentration and its correlation with consumption of vitamin d rich foods among pregnant women in India
Akanksha Bhatnagar, Kusum Mittal
Introduction:Research indicates that serum 25(OH) D insufficiency is widespread across all age groups with adverse health effects, but situations get worse when we talk about deficiency in pregnancy. Data from worldwide studies showed high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency ranged from 15 – 80%. Mother and fetus nutritional demands and metabolism rise exponentially during pregnancy, hence low dietary intake of vitamin D during pregnancy may bring adverse health effects. Methods:Observational study conducted in tertiary medical hospital. Total of 280 healthy pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics were randomly selected. For collecting socio-demographic details structured questionnaire was used. FFQ was used to obtain dietary intake of vitamin D rich foods. Serum samples were obtained and analyzed for serum 25(OH) D concentration. Results:High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (32.85%) and insufficiency (43.57%) found. Most (70%) participants were vegetarians and had low mean serum 25(OH) D (16.55±11.42ng/mL) level. Discussion: Low consumption of milk and milk products, fish, meat and egg associated with serum 25(OH) D inadequacy. Burden of serum 25(OH) D inadequacy reflects poor nutritional status and health risks for mothers and fetuses. Low socioeconomic status, hike in food sources price, lack of awareness, food fads, no use of supplements were linked to micronutrient deficiency. There is a need for further research on community-based nutritional status and dietary intake assessment for more in depth understanding. Nutritional programs and policies need to be revised for vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy.