Quality evaluation of bread produced from wheat and defatted coconut flour blends
Nasiru Bilkisu Umar, Okache Thomas Akobi, Ifeka Calista Oluebubechukwu
This research was carried out to evaluate the quality of bread produced from wheat and defatted coconut flour. Coconut fruits were defatted, made into flour and incorporated into wheat flour in varying percentages of wheat: defatted coconut flour of 100:0, 97.5:2.5, 95:5, 92.5:7.5 and 90:10 to produce five different samples of bread coded as, WDC1,WDC2,WDC3,WDC4 and WDC5 respectively using standard procedures. The result of proximate analysis showed that moisture and carbohydrate decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the substitution ranging from (9.20 to 9.60) % and (71.63 to 78.16) %, while ash, fat, protein and fiber increased from (1.11 to 1.46) %, (1.10 to 3.48) %, (9.30 to 13.13) %, (0.73 % to 1.10) % respectively. Results of functional properties showed that the swelling capacity, water absorption and oil absorption capacity increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in the level of defatted coconut flour while the bulk density decreased. Physical properties decreased significantly with increase in the levels of supplementation in terms of loaf volume (836.90 to 503.00) ml and specific volume (4.64 to 2.74) ml/g, while the loaf weight increased from (180.00 to 184.00) g. Results of sensory analysis showed that the 100 % wheat bread (WDC1) had the highest scores in all the parameters evaluated, however all the other samples (WDC2, WDC3, WDC4 and WDC5) compared considerably and were well accepted. These findings indicate that supplementation of bread with defatted coconut flour will improve the nutritional quality of bread.