Descriptive and instrumental analysis of gluten free bread from green banana, pumpkin seed and cassava composite flours
Lilian Jepkemboi Songok, Charlotte Serrem, Florence Wamunga, Calvince Onyango
Gluten-free breads have been developed but little is known about consumer perception and the bread sensory characteristics. Locally available food products green banana, pumpkin seed and cassava flours which are gluten-free and have ideal baking qualities are underutilized in commercial bread production. The main objective of this study was to formulate, develop and determine sensory profile both consumer and instrumental characteristics of seven gluten-free breads made from green banana, pumpkin seed and cassava composite flours. A mixture design was used to formulate seven variations of bread that included 100% each of banana, pumpkin seed and cassava flours, composites with 50:50 Banana: Pumpkin seed, Banana: Cassava and Pumpkin seed: cassava, one sample with⅓ of banana: pumpkin seed: cassava, while the eighth 100% wheat was a control. The sensory characteristics of bread were evaluated using a descriptive panel and instrumental texture analysis. Acceptability was evaluated by 55 consumers using a 9 point hedonic scale. Green banana bread was the hardest with 11.07 N compared to wheat bread with 4.31 N. Cassava bread was only 6% and 8% less springy and cohesive, respectively than wheat bread. All the gluten-free breads, except green banana were the same as wheat bread in chewiness with a range of 2.53 to 5.52 N. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) explained 86% of the total variation in bread samples, of which 57% separated wheat from gluten free breads, while 29% separated bread types with pumpkin seed and those without. The best sensorial characteristics are imparted by pumpkin seed flour and identification of various textural parameters contributes significantly in bakery production of gluten- free bread leading to the best hedonic dimension for the consumer identification.