Proximate analysis and mineral compositions of different cereal grain varieties available in Kano state, Nigeria
Salamatu Ahmad Sulaiman, Afodia L Kassum, Shamsudeen Nassarawa Sanusi
Cereals are undoubtedly full of nutrition, but unfortunately the refining process degrades their quality. In this study, the food composition of wheat varieties, sorghum varieties and maize varieties were chemically analyzed using the methods by Association of Analytical Chemist (AOAC). Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium and Zinc in the cereal samples were determined by Microplasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, Agilent Technologies 4210 MP-AES, FDGS Innovative Gas Company. The results obtained showed that the available carbohydrate was found in the range of 66.30 -71.38% for wheat varieties with Reyna wheat variety having the highest, whereas in sorghum varieties the carbohydrate ranged between 77.61 -77.98% with Samsorg -45 variety having the highest percentage, similarly the carbohydrate content of maize varieties was found to be in the ranged of 79.16 -82.63% with Evdt -2009 variety having the highest percentage. Attilla wheat variety presented the highest protein content (15.59%) and the least was found to be Reyna variety (12.28%) while the highest protein content in sorghum varieties was observed to be with samsorg - 41 (6.92%) while the protein content of maize varieties was found to be in the ranged of (8.25 -9.98%) with smz -39 having the highest. The ash content of wheat varieties ranged from (1.21 -1.60%) with Reyna wheat variety having the maximum while that of sorghum varieties ranged between (1.03 -1.61%) with samsorg -41 having the utmost, for maize varieties the ash content ranged from (1.53 -2.09%) among which smz- 15 having the maximum. Fat and fibre were found to range between (1.71 -1.94%) and (1.4 -1.7%) for wheat varieties with Reyna having the utmost fat content while Attilla and Norman B. Varieties were found to have higher fibre contents, similarly the fat and fibre content of sorghum varieties were in the ranged of (2.44 -2.62%) and (1.0 -1.65%) where samsorg -45 and 46 were significantly higher in terms of fat percentage whereas samsorg -46 was observed to have higher fibre content, while for maize varieties the fat and fibre content were in the ranged of (1.06 -2.96%) and (1.45 – 2.92%) with Evdt -2009 having the maximum fat percentage and smz having the highest fibre content. The result of the mineral composition showed that Reyna wheat variety was observed to have the maximum content of potassium, calcium and zinc (243.50±0.0, 90.25±0.00 and 0.67±0.00) respectively, as compared to the other counter parts, whereas Attilla wheat variety was the best interms of Magnesium level (20.04± 0.00). On the other hand Samsorg -41 sorghum variety was found to have the highest level of potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc (274.48 ± 0.00, 194.26 ± 0.00, 17.23 ± 0.00 and 0.62 ± 0.00) respectively. Similarly Evdt -2009 maize variety was obtained to have the highest level of potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc (455.44 ± 0.00, 264.49 ±0.00, 21.19 ± 0.00and 1.44 ± 0.00) respectively. The results were compared with certified standard reference material (SRM) and revealed that consumption of the cereal varieties at suitable limit of quantification may assure the recommended daily dietary allowances of minerals and a good source of energy.