Characterization and quality evaluation of Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica) protein
Mohammad Mainuddin Molla, Ebeydulla Rahman, Xin Ren, Chao Wang, Anjumanara Khatun, Ashfak Ahmed Sabuz, Mostafa Kamal, Mahfujul Alam, Qun Shen
The present study was conducted to extract and evaluate the foxtail millet (FM) protein using four extraction techniques: (i) 7% α-amylase (A1), (ii) 10% α-amylase (A2), (iii) 7% α-amylase+0.1% glucoamylase (A3), and (iv) 10% α-amylase+0.1% glucoamylase (A4). The extracted protein was enriched and then employed for cooking with different temperatures (100, 120, 130, and 140oC) and times (10, 20, 30 and 40 min). Results revealed that prolamin-assisted extraction increased the protein level, however the yield of concentrated protein was very low. The flour treated with 7% α-amylase yielded reasonable amounts of concentrated protein and protein level. Non-essential amino acid cysteine was found only in uncooked extracted enriched (UCEE) FM protein, which was entirely absent in cooked extracted enriched (CEE) FM protein. Nutritional compositions especially protein, ash, fat and crude fiber was decreased with the advancement of cooking temperatures and time except moisture, carbohydrate and energy. Conclusively, use of 7% α-amylase yielded reasonable protein and cooking at 100oC for 30 min retained higher nutritional content compared to others.