Influence of drying techniques on the quality characteristics of wheat flour cookies enriched with moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf powder
Kiin-Kabari DB, Emelike NJT, * Ebere CO
Cookies were produced from wheat flour enriched with Moringa leaf powder derived from various drying methods (oven, sun and shade) and fresh leaves prior to milling and used in the formulations to evaluate the quality characteristics which included the physical, chemical and sensory properties of the resultant products. Cookies from 100% wheat flour were equally produced and used as the control sample. The results showed no significant differences in height of all the cookie samples with 10% Moringa leaf enrichment. Oven dried Moringa leaves showed the least height (0.65cm), greater diameter (4.01cm) and spread ratio (6.33). All Moringa enriched cookies had significantly lower (p<0.05) ash and fat contents than the control sample with ash and fat content of (2.06% and 20.32%), respectively. The protein content of the oven dried sample was significantly higher (10.43%) with 10% Moringa leaves powder enrichment compared to cookies produced with egg and milk devoid of Moringa leaf powder with protein content of (10.03%). Cookies produced with Moringa enrichment had significantly (p>0.05) higher fibre compared to the control sample. Moringa leaf enriched cookies had significantly higher carbohydrate than the control cookie sample (62.32%). Sensory scores showed highest acceptability with the control cookie samples (8.30). Drying techniques significantly decreased the general acceptability of the Moringa enriched cookies compared to sample E (fresh Moringa leaves) with score of 7.10. Oven dried cookie sample (6.05) scored significantly lower (p<0.05) acceptability compared to all other samples. The general acceptability score of 6.05 to 7.10 on a 9 point hedonic scale showed that Moringa enriched cookies was also accepted by the panelists.