International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition

International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition


International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition
International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition
Vol. 6, Issue 2 (2021)

Evaluation of breads made from wheat flour, modified white yam/trifoliate yam/sweet potato starches and Moringa Oleifera seed flour blends


Okereke GO, Igbabul BD, Ikya JK

Starches obtained from selected roots and tubers (white yam, trifoliate yam and sweet potato) were physically and chemically modified through heat moisture treatment and acetylation respectively while highly nutritious flour was processed from Moringa oleifera seeds. Composite flours of 85% wheat flour, 10% native/modified starch and 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour blends were developed for production of composite breads. Nutritional compositions and baking properties of these composite breads were investigated against those of control samples (i.e. 100% wheat flour bread). Nutritionally, composite breads were significantly (p<0.05) superior to control breads while in terms of baking properties, the control breads did not significantly (p<0.05) differ from composite breads. Composite bread sample NSPB (i.e. made from composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% native sweet potato starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) had highest values in crude fibre (1.35%), protein (11.75%), calcium (116.49 mg/100g), iron (2.81 mg/100g), magnesium (57.23 mg/100g), vitamin A (3.980 µg/g), vitamin B1 (0.067 mg/100g), vitamin B2 (0.096 mg/100g), vitamin B3 (0.400 mg/100g), vitamin B6 (0.440 mg/100g) and vitamin C (13.560 mg/100g); but had lowest values in carbohydrate (45.90%). NTYB (i.e. bread made from composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% native trifoliate yam starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) led in ash content (2.40%), crude fat content (1.80%) and phosphorus content (66.91 mg/100g); but toddled in height (5.23 cm). Sample PTYB (i.e. bread made from composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% heat moisture treated trifoliate yam starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) recorded highest values in crude fibre content (1.35%), specific volume (2.20 cm3/g) and lowest in crude fat content (1.30%); while control bread sample CTLB (i.e. made from 100% wheat flour) got highest values in moisture content (38.40%), magnesium (58.15 mg/100g) and insignificantly (p<0.05) scored highest in general acceptability (6.75) but lagged behind in crude fat content (1.05%), crude fibre content (0.75%), protein content (10.80%), energy value (240.05 Kcal), calcium content (112.40 mg/100g), iron content (1.81 mg/100g), phosphorus content (63.88 mg/100g), vitamin A (1.84 µg/g), vitamin B1 (0.036 mg/100g), vitamin B2 (0.065 mg/100g), vitamin B3 (0.170 mg/100g), vitamin B6 (0.210 mg/100g), vitamin C (11.380 mg/100g) and shelf-stability potential (i.e. highest moisture content of 38.40%). Sample CWYB (i.e. bread made from composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% acetylated white yam starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) recorded best values in carbohydrate content (53.15%), energy content (270.05 Kcal) and shelf-stability potential (i.e. lowest moisture content of 31.00%) but lowest values in ash content (2.00%), magnesium content (55.23%) and general acceptability (5.75). Sample PWYB (i.e. bread made from composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% heat moisture treated white yam starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) also obtained highest value of 1.35% in crude fibre content.
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