Evaluation of nutrient composition and organoleptic properties of cookies produced from composite flours of sorghum, black bean and cocoyam
Okoye JI, Umerah NN, Ene GI
The proximate and mineral composition as well as the sensory properties of cookies produced from composite flours of sorghum, black bean and cocoyam were investigated. The blends of sorghum, black bean and cocoyam flour (80: 15:5, 70:20:10, 60:25:15 and 50:30:20) were used in the preparation of composite cookies with 100% wheat flour cookies as control. The proximate, mineral and sensory properties of the samples were determined using standard methods of analysis. The moisture, crude protein, fat, ash and crude fibre contents of the cookies increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in substitution with black bean and cocoyam flours from 8. 11+0.07 – 9.30+0.28%, 9.07+0.21 -12.10+0.35%, 2.52+0.05 – 4.49+0.77%, 3.90+0.08 – 5.11 +0.04% and 3.21 +0.07 – 4.72+0.05%, respectively, while the carbohydrate decreased. The control (wheat flour cookies) and the cookie samples substituted with 30% black bean and 20% cocoyam flours had the highest (73.19+0.27%) and the least (64.80+0.42%) carbohydrate contents, respectively. The mineral content of the cookies showed that the calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and iron contents of the samples increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in the levels of substitution with black bean and cocoyam flours from 18.7 0.73 – 28.8+0.54mg/100g, 69.5+1.83 – 90.1+1.45mg/100g, 34.2+0.09 – 40. 1+0.42mg/100g, 33.4+1.07 – 39.3+0.48mg/100g and 25.5±1.12-30.1±0.39mg/100g, respectively. The sensory properties of the samples also revealed that the cookies produced from 100% wheat flour used as control were the most acceptable to the panelists and also differed significantly (p<0.05) from composite cookie samples in colour, taste, texture and flavour. Although, the 100% wheat flour cookies had better consumers’ sensory attributes, all the composite cookie samples had higher nutrient contents with the exception of carbohydrate than the wheat flour cookies. The study, therefore, showed that the macro and micronutrient contents of cookies can be improved by supplementing sorghum flour with black bean and cocoyam flours at different graded levels, thus providing good alternatives for the use of non-wheat flours in the preparation of cookies.