Antioxidant activities and physicochemical properties of spiced Kunu beverage
Ukom AN, Kanu CF, Ndife J
This work evaluated the antioxidant activities and physicochemical properties of spiced kunu-zaki beverages. The ability of the spices (xylopia aethiopica, Tetrapleura tetraptera, zingiber officinale) to scavenge free radical actions in kunu-zaki beverages was determined by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and RP assays. The physicochemical properties (chemical and proximate, minerals, vitamins and sensory properties) were determine by standard methods. The result revealed that addition of spices to kunu-zaki beverages significantly (p<0.05) increased the proximate values and ranged from ash (0.3-0.42%), crude fat (0.20-0.55%), crude protein (1.50-2.45%), carbohydrate (11.60-13.18%) and TSS (16-18). Similarly, the minerals and vitamins were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the spiced beverages than the control and ranged from Ca (7.87-14.19 mg/100g), Mg (28.92-52.67 mg/100g), K (49.65-66.29 mg/100g), Fe (0.41-060 mg/100g) and vitamins B1 (0.03-0.40 mg/100g), B2 (0.09-0.25 mg/100g), B3 (0.12-0.27 mg/100g), respectively. With the exception of RP, addition of spices to kunu-zaki beverages showed strong antioxidant activities in ABTS (0.30-0.38 mmol/100mL), DPPH (24.02-49.49%), FRAP (4.11-8.62 GAE/mL) and increased polyphenol (1.42-3.66 GAE/mL) than the control. The sensory acceptability scores showed that the spiced kunu-zaki beverages were preferred by the panelist to the control in all parameters tested. However, beverage B (Tetrapleura tetraptera) had the best overall results in the pH, TSS, proximate, Fe, Mg, vitamins, total polyphenol, strongest antioxidant (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) activities and best preferred beverage than others.