Quality assessment of porridges produced from millet, pigeon pea and crayfish flours
Okoye JI, Umerah NN, Ani EC
The nutrient composition and organoleptic properties of porridges produced from millet, pigeon pea and crayfish flours were investigated. The millet flour was combined with pigeon pea and crayfish flours in the ratios of 90:5:5, 80:15:5, 70:20:10, 60:25:15, and 50:30:20 and used in the preparation of porridges. The proximate, mineral, vitamin and sensory properties of the porridges were evaluated using standard analytical methods. The protein, fat, ash and energy contents of the samples increased significantly (p<0.05) from 9.09+0.18-17.14+0.40%, 1.30+0.03-3.19+0.10%, 3.10±0.07-4.14±0.03% and 361.02±1.14-374.51 ±2.64 KJ/100g, respectively as the ratios of pigeon pea and crayfish flours increased in the blends, while the crude fibre and carbohydrate contents decreased. The control sample without substitution with pigeon pea and crayfish flours (100% malted millet flour) had the highest crude fibre (3.56+0.14%) and carbohydrate (78.24+0.16%) contents. The mineral composition of the samples showed that the calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc contents of the samples increased sequentially with increase in substitution with pigeon pea and crayfish flours from 21.73+0.64-41.24+0.17mg/100g, 37.39+1.32-42.88+0.79mg/100g, 83.60+1.27-145.90+1.39mg/100g, 36.80+1.32-50.07+1.66mg/100g, 21.29+0.18-28.05+ 0.27mg/100g and 4.54+0.11-7.99+0.24mg/100g, respectively. The vitamin content of the samples also revealed that the ascorbic acid, thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, folic acid and vitamin A contents of the samples increased significantly (p<0.05) as the levels of substitution of pigeon pea and crayfish flours increased in the blends. The control sample (100% malted millet flour) had the least values for all the vitamins evaluated. The sensory attributes: colour, taste, texture and aroma of the control sample were the most acceptable to the panelists compared to the samples substituted with pigeon pea and crayfish flours at different graded levels. Although, it had better consumers’ sensory attributes, it was the least in nutrient contents with the exception of crude fibre and carbohydrate. However, the study showed that the composite blends of locally available and underutilized nutrient dense ingredients could be used to produce complementary foods, breakfast cereals and porridges that can be used for the feeding of infants, young children and adults in both developing and under-developed countries of the world.