Phytoconstituents and pharmacological activity of Gauzaban (Borago officinalis Linn): A review
Mohammad Abu Bin Nyeem, Mohammad Sadul Haque, Mohammad Abdul Hoque, Mohammad Manirul Islam, Shafiqul Islam
Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) is commonly known as ‘Borage’ and ‘Gauzaban’ locally in Iran. The plant is reputed as hepatoprotective, gastrointestinal, respiratory anxiolytic, antispasmodic, antihypertensive, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, demulcent, diuretic and is also considered useful to treat asthma, bronchitis, cramps, palpitations and kidney ailments. Borage oil has been reported to lower serum cholesterol, phospholipids and triglyceride levels and increases the levels of 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the plasma, liver, aorta and renal artery tissues and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) obtained from Borago officinalis L. seed oil are useful for cardiovascular diseases. Borage is a good antioxidant agent to improve the learning impairment and hippocampal tissue damageafter the Amyloid β (Aβ) administration. Dietary use of borage oil exhibited immuno-modulatory, cytotoxic and free radical scavenging activities. Borage has gained importance, due to the occurrence of high levels of g-linolenic acid in its seed oil. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were the important essential oils in this plant and no have tannin. Borago officinalis extracts demonstrated excellent antioxidant properties and these effects were attributed to their phenolic constituents. Few studies examining Iron, Copper, Zinc and Manganese fertility in Borage have been conducted, but they are not specific to the medicinal use of this plant.