Quality evaluation of wheat-cassava bread as affected by fruit juice inclusion in dough formation
Agbara Gervase Ikechukwu, Galadima M Anas
In this present study, breads (B) were produced from Wheat (W )flour and wheat-cassava(WC) flour, the liquids used in dough formation were fruit juices from Orange (O), Watermelon (WM), Pineapple (P) and mixed fruit(MF).Ten experimental runs listed here were generated including two controls treated with water only: WB, WCB, WB+O, WB+P, WB+WM, WB+MF,WCB+O, WCB+P, WB+WM, and WCB+MF. The physicochemical properties of the flours, the fruit juices and the breads were evaluated. The pH, titratable acidity (%), total soluble solids, moisture contents of the fruit juices varied significantly from 3.65-5.15%, 0.19-1.03%, 9.32-12.20%, 89.62-96.51% respectively. Cassava flour had higher coarse granulation which affected negatively the finer textured wheat flour. Wheat flour had higher protein content (10.71%) and the cassava flour higher amounts of dietary fibre (2.87%) and ash (2.57%). The moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate (by difference) contents of the various bread were 26.70-29.33%, 1.23-1.60%, 6.29-8.89%, 2,61-2.74% and 58.00-59.71% respectively. The specific loaf volumes were all high more in the control (4.97ml/g) than in the treated (4.06-4.47ml/g) The order of dominance of mineral elements in the breads was K>P>Mg>Na>Ca>Fe>Zn, higher in fruit juice treated breads and the amounts doubled or tripled in those breads containing mixed fruit juice. The crust color, crumb grain, taste, aroma, and overall acceptability scores of the breads were very high above 7on a 9-point hedonic scale and mix-fruit juice breads received the least scores. This study has demonstrated convincingly that the nutrient profile, volume and sensory attributes of bread can be enhanced by using fruit juice in dough formation.