Black rice flour: proximate composition, physicochemical properties and phytochemical screening in sequential extracts
Sushmitha BR, Vanitha Reddy P
Introduction: Black rice has been eaten throughout Asia for thousands of years and has a significant history of use in China, India and Thailand. In India black rice is grown in Manipur, Assam, west Bengal, Jharkhand and Orissa. Among which, Manipur grows about 10% of Black Rice of total cultivation are of rice.
Objective: To analyze the proximate composition, physicochemical properties and phytochemical screening in sequential extracts of BRF.
Materials & Method: Black rice flour collected from Imphal, Manipur, India was analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical properties, phytochemical screening in sequential extracts (hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and water) and comparison of bulk density, water absorption, fat absorption, foam capacity, foam stability, degree of rehydration with brown rice and white rice.
Result & Conclusion: The BRF proximate composition was- Moisture- 6.37%, protein-2.275%, fat-3.7%, ash -4.92%. The physicochemical properties were compared with brown and white rice, where it was observed that the bulk density, water and fat absorption, emulsifying capacity were less than the brown and white rice. In sequential extracts, polyphenol content was high in water extract (0.568g/100g) followed by ethanol> Methanol > acetone> chloroform > Pet. Ether. Qualitative analysis of phytochemical using different extract showed rich source of triterpinoids, terpinoids followed by alkaloids and quinines. Sequential extract of different solvents was higher in water extract followed by ethanol, methanol, acetone, chloroform least amount of sequential extract seen in pet ether and hexane. Black Rice has a potential to be used as functional food ingredient due to its very low fat, salt, sugar, gluten, cholesterol and high protein as reported. There are limited studies reported on the food product development and functional properties. This data can be further utilized to find out the efficiency of Black Rice when used in functional food formulations.