Exposure and health risk assessment via sachet packaged water consumption in the Tamale Metropolis, Northern Region, Ghana
Ernest Bonah, Sylvester Oteng Kyei, Mohammed Kasim
A human health risk assessment study was conducted in the Tamale Metropolis to ascertain the risk of trace metal contamination via drinking packaged sachet water. A total of 102 PSW brands sold and produced within the Tamale Metropolis was collected between February 2014 and December 2015. Chemical analyses were performed according to the procedures outlined in the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 2000.Monte Carlo simulation based on @RISK software was used to assess health risk indicators, i.e., Chronic Dietary Intake CDI, Hazard Quotient and Hazard Index. Chronic daily intake (CDI) of the trace metals were 3.8, 0.06, 28.18, 0.59, 8.26, 0.01, 0.08, 0.10, 0.01, 0.00, 0.01 µg/kg/day for NO3¯, NO2¯, SO4, Fl, Cl, Pb, Fe, Mn, Zn, AS respectively. The HQ (Hazard Quotient) values for each trace metal and the HI (Hazard Index) value for all eleven trace metals were below one (0.235), indicating no non-carcinogenic risks from consumption of PSW by inhabitants in the Tamale metropolis.