This article is intended to focus on the composition and the nutritional benefits (health claims) of oats. Oats have a distinct and multi funtional nutritional profile. Recent researches have established the therapeutic properties of its components. Oat β-glucan (OβG) consists mainly of the linear polysaccharide (1→3), (1→4)-β-D-glucan and is often called β-glucan. This soluble oat fiber is able to attenuate blood postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses, to lower blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and to improve high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and blood lipid profiles as well as to maintain body weight. Thus, intake of OβG intake is beneficial in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The health benefits may be attributed to it’s physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, molecular weight) which can be affected by extraction methods and its behavior in gastrointestinal tract. Oats and it’s by products (like oat bran) have proven to be helpful in the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Oat bran is a concentrated source of b-glucan and also is a good source of B complex vitamins, protein, fat, minerals. The b-glucan has outstanding functional properties and is of immense importance in human nutrition.